We know that ingredients are very important to you, so we created this glossary of ingredients to make it quick and easy for you to find explanations of ingredients and related terms.



Alfalfa is a plant rich in vitamins A, B, C, D, E, G and K. It is a good source of minerals such as magnesium and calcium. Its mineral content and high fiber content make it an excellent addition to our treats.

Algae Meal

Algae Meal is made from farm-raised algae and is an excellent source of omega 3 fatty acids, omega 6 fatty acids, and DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid), all of which support healthy cognitive function. (See also entry for DHA).


One of the most abundant fruits grown in North America, apples are rich in dietary fiber and vitamin C.

Apple Fiber

Apple fiber is product generated from the processing of apples. It is a high quality source of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber.

Ascorbic Acid

Ascorbic acid is the scientific name for a naturally occurring form of Vitamin C. Vitamin C is a nutrient that helps support immune system health. Vitamin C can be found in high concentrations in cantaloupe, oranges, grapefruits, kiwis, mangos and papayas.


Bacillus coagulans

Bacillus coagulans is a beneficial probiotic. Probiotics are microorganisms that can be ingested by humans and animals that contribute to digestive health. Most of these microorganisms are already present in our bodies and in the bodies of animals. The strain we use in our treats is called Ganaden BC30, a patented strain of Bacillus coagulans that has been extensively studied. It can survive the harsh environment in the manufacturing process and in the stomach, making it perfect for supporting digestive health. (also see entry for Probiotics).


Bananas are the potassium super food! We use real bananas in our treats for their fiber content, high levels of amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.


Barley is a highly nutritious grain. It is high in dietary fiber, vitamin B1, and copper. Barley can support a healthy digestive system, healthy metabolism, and aids in the absorption of oxygen.

Barley Flour

Barley flour is barley that has be de-hulled and ground into a powder. Barley flour supports a healthy digestive system, healthy metabolism, and aids in the absorption of oxygen.


Beta-carotene is an antioxidant most commonly found in carrots and sweet potatoes. Beta-carotene is a source of vitamin A, the vitamin that supports healthy vision and the immune system.


Bioavailability refers to how easy it is for dogs (or humans!) to absorb a nutrient or mineral. A high bioavailability means that it is easily digestible.

Blueberry Pomace

Blueberry pomace is the fruit left after the blueberries have been pressed for their juice. It contains the skins and pulp of the blueberries. It is a good source of fiber, vitamin C, and vitamin K. Blueberries can help support healthy cognitive function and a healthy heart.

Brewer's Dried Yeast

Brewer’s Dried Yeast is a single cell fungus. Brewer’s yeast and baker’s yeast are different strains of the same species of yeast. It is a good source of chromium and B vitamins.

Brewer's Rice

Brewer’s Rice is the milled fragments of rice kernels that have been separated from larger kernels of rice. Rice is an excellent source of carbohydrates(See entry for Carbohydrates), an energy source that active dogs need, and is also a source of selenium and manganese. Rice is a gluten-free grain.

Brown Rice Flour

Brown rice flour is made from brown rice, which includes the bran and germ of the grain, so it includes all of the benefits of the whole grain. It is gluten-free and an excellent substitute for dogs and cats that are sensitive to wheat and corn. It is high in dietary fiber, manganese, and selenium which help support digestive health and thyroid health.


Calcium Carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a common substance found in egg shells, broccoli, and kale. Calcium carbonate is used to support healthy bones and teeth. It is also used as a dietary calcium supplement or to treat gastric issues.


Capsaicin is the active component in chili peppers and jalapenos that make the peppers hot. It has been shown to help maintain healthy joints and a healthy cardiovascular system.


Capsicum is the scientific name(or genus) of a group of flowering herbs and plants that produce peppers. Chili peppers, bell peppers, jalapeno peppers and banana peppers are all members of the Capsicum family! Capsicum peppers contain capsaicin, the active component that gives the peppers their heat. It has been show to help maintain healthy joints and a healthy cardiovascular system.


Carbohydrates are an important source of energy for both humans and pets. Carbohydrates can perform many roles in the body, such as storing energy. Carbohydrates come in simple and complex forms, the complex being the healthier of the two. Complex carbohydrates take longer to break down into glucose, making them a better source of long term energy.


Carob is the bean of a tropical plant that is packed with nutrients. It is high in vitamin A, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, as well as high in calcium and potassium. It has similar properties to chocolate, but does NOT contain theobromine, the chemical in chocolate that is poisonous to dogs.


Carrageenan is a natural red seaweed extract commonly used in both the human and pet food industry to thicken the texture of foods.


Carrots are one of the most nutritious vegetables. They are high in dietary fiber, iron, potassium, and vitamins A, B6, and C. Carrots have been shown to help maintain healthy eyes.

Cellulose (Powdered)

Cellulose is an organic compound that is found in the primary cell wall of green plants and algae. It is also known as dietary fiber. Dietary fiber helps to support a healthy digestive system.

Chia Seed

Chia seeds come from a species of flowering plant in the mint family. They are high in fiber, protein, and omega 3 and 6 fatty acids. They can help support a healthy brain, muscles, and digestive system.


We get all of our chicken from USA sources. Chicken is an excellent source of high quality lean protein.

Chicken Meal

Chicken meal is simply chicken meat that has been dried until it contains very little moisture. This yields a very protein rich meal that typically adds more protein to treats than regular chicken meat.

Chondroitin Sulfate

Chondroitin sulfate is a natural supplement found in cartilage that has properties and uses that are similar to glucosamine. Chondroitin sulfate nourishes and supports joint function.


Cinnamon is a spice that is derived from the inner bark of a particular species of tree. Rich in vitamin K, iron, calcium and fiber, cinnamon is a delicious and healthy addition to our treats.

Citric Acid

Citric acid is an acid naturally found in fruits like oranges and lemons. It is used as a natural preservative.

Corn Gluten Meal

Corn gluten meal contains gluten, but it is not the type of gluten that is found in wheat or barley. Corn gluten can be easily digested by those with gluten allergies. Corn gluten meal is made by grinding up the parts of corn kernels that are left after turning corn into corn meal. It is an excellent a source of protein and helps support strong muscles.


Cranberries are a delicious source of dietary fiber and manganese, as well as vitamins C, K, and E. Cranberries help support the urinary system and are high in antioxidants.

Cranberry Juice Concentrate

Cranberry juice is the juice of cranberries. Like whole cranberries, cranberry juice is full of vitamins K, E, and C. Cranberries help support the urinary system and are high in antioxidants.


Dehydrated Carrots

Dehydrated carrots are simply carrots that have had their moisture removed by a drying process. They retain all of their dietary fiber during the dehydration process, but lose a lot of their vitamin A and vitamin C content due to the heat exposure. The high fiber content in dehydrated carrots helps to support proper digestive health.

Deionized Water

Deionized water is water that has had all of its ions removed through an ion exchange process. The result is a pure water source.


DHA is short for docosahexaenoic acid, which is an omega-3 fatty acid. It helps nervous tissue, like skin and the brain, grow and function properly. It is found most commonly in fish oil and algae.


Dill is an herb commonly used in cooking that packs a lot of vitamins and minerals into a tiny package. It is a good source of vitamins A, C, and B6, as well as many nutrients like calcium, folate, iron, and fiber. Dill can support many bodily functions like healthy bones and a healthy digestive system, all while helping keep breath fresh.

DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate

DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate is the scientific name for a form of vitamin E. Vitamin E is found naturally in many foods, including sunflower oil, almonds and spinach. As an antioxidant, vitamin E helps to protect against free radicals. It also plays a role in helping support a healthy immune system.



Fats are nutrients that play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair, insulating the body from shock and extreme temperatures. It can also be used as an energy source for humans and pets. There are good types of fats and bad types of fats. Saturated fats are typically found in animal products and processed foods like dairy products and chips. They are the fats that are not heart healthy. Unsaturated fats are typically found in nuts and olives, and are considered heart healthy.


Fennel is an herb rich in fiber, vitamin C, folate, potassium, and manganese. Fennel is used as a natural breath freshener.

Fish Oil

There are numerous types of fish oil available for use in both human and pet food products. The fish oil we use comes from herring and is an excellent source of vitamin A, DHA, and omega-3 fatty acids. Fish oil helps support healthy cognitive function.


Flaxseed comes from the flax plant, a plant that produces fibers as well as seeds. Flaxseed is a good source of dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. Fiber helps support digestive health, while omega acids support healthy brain function.

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS)

Fructooligosaccharides, or FOS, are prebiotic sugars that occur naturally in plants like chicory root, bananas, and artichokes. It is considered a prebiotic because it is thought that FOS can stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the digestive system. Beneficial bacteria assist in the digestive process by helping to break down food that otherwise couldn’t be digested.



Gelatin is a flavorless, colorless substance derived from either plant or animal collagen. It is used as a source of protein and amino acids, which help nourish the skin and support a healthy skeleton.


Ginger is a fragrant root that is generally consumed as a spice. It is a good source of vitamin C, copper, and manganese. Ginger has a long history of helping to support gastrointestinal health.

Glucosamine Hydrochloride

Glucosamine hydrochloride is derived from shellfish. Treats formulated with glucosamine hydrochloride help support healthy joints.


Glycerin can be made one of three ways; from animal fats as a byproduct of animal fat soaps, made synthetically in a lab using petroleum, or from vegetable oils. We are proud to say our glycerin is 100% vegetable based, made from palm oil. Its purpose in our treats is to keep them moist and chewy, which extends their shelf life. (see Vegetable Glycerin entry for more info)

Green Tea Extract (Decaf)

Green tea extract is made in a similar way to the vanilla extract that may people use in baking cakes, cookies, and other treats. The leaves are soaked in alcohol for two to six months and the resulting liquid is green tea extract! Green tea extract is packed full of antioxidants, which can support many bodily functions as the body ages. It has also been used to support gastrointestinal health.


Herring Oil

Herring oil is simply oil from a herring fish. Herring oil is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, which can help improve skin and coat health.



Iron is a chemical element found in all living organisms. It can be found in proteins such as hemoglobin, the protein that gives blood its red color. Iron can be found in high concentrations in red meat, lentils, beans, leafy vegetables and chickpeas.


L-Ascorbyl-2 Polyphosphate

L-Ascorbyl-2 Polyphosphate is the scientific name for vitamin C. Vitamin C occurs naturally in foods like citrus fruits, papaya, and broccoli. As an antioxidant it helps protect against free radicals, and it helps support cognitive function.


L-Carnitine is a natural amino acid that transports fatty acids during their transformation to energy in the body. It is most commonly found in red meats, milk, and fish. This amino acid supports heart and brain health, as well as muscular health.


Lecithin is a fat that can be used to help chewy treats retain their shape.


Menhaden Meal

Menhaden is a small fish commonly found on the Atlantic coast of the United States, as well as in the Gulf of Mexico. Menhaden meal is made by drying the fish until it contains very little moisture. This fish is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which can help support cardiovascular health and help maintain a healthy skin and coat.

Milk Protein Concentrate

Milk protein concentrate is derived from milk but due to the concentration, is a source for high quality protein. To make it, skim milk is filtered in a way that removes trace minerals, some lactose, and water from the milk, but leaves behind the casein and whey proteins contained in the milk. This creates what is known as milk protein concentrate.

Mixed Tocopherols

Mixed tocopherols is the scientific name for four types of vitamin E, delta, alpha, gamma and beta. Vitamin E is found in vegetable oils like sunflower oil and almond oil, as well as in foods like asparagus and coconut. We use this natural preservative to keep our treats fresh but it also supports energy production and cardiovascular health.


Oat Fiber

Oats are naturally high in fiber. Oat fiber is the result of naturally processing oat hulls to create a flour-like substance that makes adding fiber to our treats very easy. Oat fiber is gluten-free.

Oat Flour

Oat flour is flour made from grinding whole oats into flour form. It is an excellent source of dietary fiber. Oat flour is gluten-free.


Oatmeal is made from oat grains that are de-hulled. It is an excellent source of dietary fiber. Oatmeal is a gluten-free grain.

Olive Oil

Olive oil is oil traditionally obtained by grinding ripened olives with huge granite wheels and pressing the resulting paste between hemp mats. Olive oil is rich in antioxidants like vitamin E and cartenoids, and has been lauded as the healthiest fat available. Healthy fats like those found in olive oil have been shown to help support a healthy cardiovascular system.

Organic Brown Rice Flour

Organic brown rice flour is flour made from whole brown rice kernels. It contains a significantly higher amount of vitamins and minerals than white rice or wheat flour. Brown rice and brown rice flour are gluten-free.

Organic Flaxseed

Flaxseeds come from the flax plant. They are a good source of dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. Flaxseed helps support a healthy digestive system and healthy cognitive function.

Organic Oat Fiber

Oats are naturally high in fiber. Oat fiber is the result of naturally processing oat hulls to create a flour-like substance that makes adding fiber to anything very easy. Oat fiber is gluten-free.



Paprika is a spice made from a mixture of ground chili pepper and bell pepper. Paprika is used as a flavor enhancer. Paprika contains a high amount of vitamin A, which supports healthy eyes.


Parsley is an herb native to the central Mediterranean region. The herb is commonly used as a garnish, but also has a powerful breath freshening effect.

Peanut Meal

Peanut meal is created when peanuts are pressed for their oil. The pressing creates a meal that is high in protein.

Peanut Oil

Peanut oil is the mild tasting oil extracted from peanuts. We use peanut oil in our treats to give them the peanut flavor dogs love.


Pectin is a high fiber carbohydrate found in many kinds of fruits, especially citrus fruits. The pectin we use in our treats is made from apples. We use it in our treats as a gelling agent.


Peppermint is an herb indigenous to Europe. There is evidence that peppermint has been used for medicinal purposes for over ten thousand years, but we mostly use it for its powerful breath freshening properties.

Peppermint Oil

Peppermint oil is the oil pressed from the leaves and flowering tops of the peppermint plant. Peppermint oil is often used in toothpastes and chewing gum for the flavor and for its breath freshening properties.

Phosphoric Acid

Phosphoric acid is a mild acidifier that adds a tangy flavor to our treats and also acts as a natural preservative. Phosphoric acid is a natural mineral which is mined and then purified to form phosphoric acid.


Pomegranate is a unique fruit that adds delicious flavor and generous amounts of antioxidants, like vitamin C and K, to our treats. Pomegranates can help support a healthy heart.


Pork is the culinary name for the meat from pigs. Pork is considered red meat and contains high amounts of vitamin B1, which helps support a healthy metabolism.

Potato Starch

Potato starch is starch extracted from whole potatoes.


Potassium is a chemical element found in all living organisms. It helps support vascular and gastrointestinal health. Potassium can be found in tomatoes, orange juice, beet greens, potatoes and bananas.


Probiotics are microorganisms that can be ingested by humans and animals that contribute to digestive health. Most of these microorganisms are already present in our bodies and in the bodies of animals. Some of them, like Bacillus coagulans are not naturally found in the human body, but can help support the health of our digestive system. (also see Bacillus coagulans entry)


Proteins are the building blocks of the body. It can be found in muscle, bone, skin, hair and every other part of the body! Proteins can be found in meat and eggs as well as fruits, vegetables and nuts. People and pets can create some of the essential proteins, but not all of them. The others must come from the diet.


Pumpkin is a type of squash that has a high concentration of vitamins and minerals as well as fiber. Pumpkin also has a soothing effect on gastrointestinal issues in dogs, cats, and ferrets.


Rice Flour

Rice flour is made from grinding raw rice into flour. It is gluten-free and we use it in treats to achieve a wheat free, soy free, and gluten-free product.

Romano Cheese

Romano cheese it a type of cheese made primarily in the United States and Canada. It is a hard, salty cheese good for grating. We use Romano cheese in our cheesy treats because of its delicious, bold flavor.


Rosemary is fragrant herb. It contains powerful antioxidants and works as a natural preservative to keep treats chewy.


Sesame Oil

Sesame oil is oil derived from the sesame seed. It is often used as cooking oil and a flavor enhancer.

Sodium Hexametaphosphate

Sodium hexametaphosphate is a compound of sodium and phosphates that is added to our dental treats to help keep teeth clean. It removes and helps prevent stains on teeth and prevents dental calculus from forming. The phosphates bind to the surface of the tooth and then prevent the calcium in tartar from binding to the tooth.

Sorbic Acid

Sorbic acid is a natural organic compound that acts as a preservative. It is a white, crystalline carboxylic acid. It was first isolated from the berries of the rowan tree.

Soy Protein Concentrate

Soy protein concentrate is a concentrated protein sourced from soybeans that have been defatted and dehulled. It is used as the base of many of our treats as an alternative to gluten-heavy grains like wheat or barley. It also retains moisture better than any other grain. Having these proteins as a treat on occasion can be beneficial to pets, as soy is high in omega 3 and 6, amino acids, and other vitamins and minerals. Soy can support a healthy metabolism too. Please note that, just like with humans, some pets may have an allergy to soy. If you have a soy sensitive pet, be sure to consult your veterinarian before feeding them anything containing soy.


Sugar is used in our N-Bone Sweet Potato Chews as a natural preservative, to keep the chews from drying out and extend their shelf life. Sugars are found in most plants, but the sugarcane plant and the sugar beet have sufficient concentrations to extract sugar efficiently. Sugar is extracted from these plants through a process called diffusion.

Sunflower Oil

Sunflower oil is made by pressing ground sunflower seeds to extract the oil, which is the most natural way to extract the oil. Sunflower oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid (omega 6 fatty acid) and vitamin E, which can help support a healthy cardiovascular system as well as a healthy skin & coat.

Sweet Potatoes

Sweet potatoes are a root vegetable rich in vitamin A, beta-carotene, and potassium. Sweet potatoes are rich in antioxidants that protect from free radicals, and can help support a healthy cardiovascular system.


Tapioca Starch

Tapioca starch is made by washing, peeling, and grinding the dried roots of the cassava plant into a flour. It is used in our treats to help them hold their shape.


Taurine is a common additive to cat food and ferret food. It is commonly found in meat and fish, and can also be found naturally in the human body. It is an essential nutrient that cats and ferrets, as obligate carnivores, need to receive in their diet. It supports muscle health, cardiovascular health, healthy vision, and a healthy nervous system. It is added to our cat and ferret treats as a dietary supplement.

Titanium Dioxide

Titanium dioxide is the naturally occurring dioxide of titanium. It is a natural mineral.


Turmeric is a member of the ginger family. It is packed with antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. It helps support gastrointestinal health.

Tuna Oil

Tuna oil is the oil from tuna fish. It is an excellent source of DHA, selenium, and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Tuna oil supports healthy cognitive function.



Vanilla is a flavoring derived from the fruit of the vanilla orchid, a flower native to Mexico. We use it as a breath freshener.

Vegetable Glycerin

Vegetable glycerin is a sugar alcohol compound that is made from vegetable oils. We use it to keep our treats moist and fresh.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a nutrient commonly found in liver, sweet potato, carrots, broccoli, kale, pumpkin and more. It supports healthy vision, immune function and skin health, among others.


Wheat Gluten

Wheat gluten is made by washing wheat flour until all of the starch is dissolved. It is used as a meat substitute in many countries. Some pet owners may have concerns over giving dogs gluten, under the assumption that they are carnivores and cannot digest vegetable proteins. However, dogs are closer to omnivores than carnivores and need a balanced diet, including vegetables, to thrive. Dogs have no trouble digesting vegetable proteins, including gluten.

White Kidney Bean Extract

White kidney bean extract is the extract of white kidney beans. It can help maintain a healthy weight.


Zinc Gluconate

Zinc gluconate is a common way to deliver the trace element zinc. It is found naturally in sesame seeds, lentils, and pumpkin seeds. Zinc helps support a healthy immune system.

Zinc Proteinate

Zinc proteinate is a supplement designed to prevent zinc deficiency in animals. It is found naturally in sesame seeds, lentils, and pumpkin seeds. Zinc is an essential trace element that can support a healthy immune system.